Meet Our Residents & Fellows

A Program in Partnership With Duke Global Health Institute

Gerald Bloomfield, MD, MPH

GHP Graduate

Cardiovascular Diseases

Department of Medicine


Dr. Gerald Bloomfield completed the Duke Global Health Pathway and a Fogarty International Clinical Research Fellowship in 2010 and is currently Assistant Professor of Medicine and Global Health at the Duke University Medical Center. He received his undergraduate degree in Psychology from Princeton University and his MD from Johns Hopkins University. During medical school, he earned an MPH from the Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health with a concentration in Health Finance and Management and International Health.

Dr. Bloomfield completed his Internal Medicine residency in the Osler Internal Medicine Training program at Johns Hopkins where he was later asked to serve as an Assistant Chief of Service (Chief Resident). He completed his Cardiology Fellowship at Duke in 2011. His earliest exposures to global medicine were during medical school and residency where he has served as student, research assistant, relief worker and attending physician in Japan, Singapore, India and Kenya.



His research interests are in the epidemiology of heart failure and cardiovascular risk factors in sub-Saharan Africa.  He has led studies of heart failure epidemiology, cardiovascular effects of indoor air pollution, genetic associations with cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular risk factors among HIV+ patients at the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute’s Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Disease Center of Excellence at Moi University in Eldoret, Kenya. 

Representative publications:

Barasa, F. A.; Vedanthan, R.; Pastakia, S. D.; Crowe, S. J.; Aruasa, W.; Sugut, W. K.; White, R.; Ogola, E. S.; Bloomfield, G. S.; Velazquez, E. J. "Approaches to Sustainable Capacity Building for Cardiovascular Disease Care in Kenya." Cardiol Clin 35, no. 1 (Feb 2017): 145-52.

Binanay, C. A.; Akwanalo, C. O.; Aruasa, W.; Barasa, F. A.; Corey, G. R.; Crowe, S.; Esamai, F.; Einterz, R.; Foster, M. C.; Gardner, A.; Kibosia, J.; Kimaiyo, S.; Koech, M.; Korir, B.; Lawrence, J. E.; Lukas, S.; Manji, I.; Maritim, P.; Ogaro, F.; Park, Peter; Pastakia, S. D.; Sugut, W.; Vedanthan, R.; Yanoh, R.; Velazquez, E. J.; Bloomfield, G. S. "Building Sustainable Capacity for Cardiovascular Care at a Public Hospital in Western Kenya." J Am Coll Cardiol 66, no. 22 (Dec 08 2015): 2550-60.

Bloomfield, G. S.; Alenezi, F.; Barasa, F. A.; Lumsden, R.; Mayosi, B. M.; Velazquez, E. J. "Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Heart Failure in Low- and Middle-Income Countries." JACC Heart Fail 3, no. 8 (Aug 2015): 579-90.

Bloomfield, G. S.; Baldridge, A.; Agarwal, A.; Huffman, M. D.; Colantonio, L. D.; Bahiru, E.; Ajay, V. S.; Prabhakaran, P.; Lewison, G.; Prabhakaran, D. "Disparities in Cardiovascular Research Output and Citations from 52 African Countries: A Time-Trend, Bibliometric Analysis (1999-2008)." [In eng]. J Am Heart Assoc 4, no. 4 (Apr 02 2015).

Bloomfield, G. S.; Barasa, F. A.; Doll, J. A.; Velazquez, E. J. "Heart Failure in Sub-Saharan Africa." Curr Cardiol Rev 9, no. 2 (May 2013): 157-73.

Bloomfield, G. S.; DeLong, A. K.; Akwanalo, C. O.; Hogan, J. W.; Carter, E. J.; Aswa, D. F.; Binanay, C.; Koech, M.; Kimaiyo, S.; Velazquez, E. J. "Markers of Atherosclerosis, Clinical Characteristics, and Treatment Patterns in Heart Failure: A Case-Control Study of Middle-Aged Adult Heart Failure Patients in Rural Kenya." Glob Heart 11, no. 1 (Mar 2016): 97-107.

Bloomfield, G. S.; Hogan, J. W.; Keter, A.; Holland, T. L.; Osanya, J.; Sang, E.; Kimaiyo, S.; Velazquez, E. J. "High Blood Pressure Increases Risk of Death among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Seropositive Individuals in Kenya." [In English]. Circulation 126, no. 21 (Nov 20 2012).

Bloomfield, G. S.; Hogan, J. W.; Keter, A.; Holland, T. L.; Sang, E.; Kimaiyo, S.; Velazquez, E. J. "Blood Pressure Level Impacts Risk of Death among Hiv Seropositive Adults in Kenya: A Retrospective Analysis of Electronic Health Records." BMC Infect Dis 14 (May 22 2014): 284.

Bloomfield, G. S.; Hogan, J. W.; Keter, A.; Sang, E.; Carter, E. J.; Velazquez, E. J.; Kimaiyo, S. "Hypertension and Obesity as Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Hiv Seropositive Patients in Western Kenya." PLoS One 6, no. 7 (July 2011): e22288.

Bloomfield, G. S.; Khazanie, P.; Morris, A.; Rabadan-Diehl, C.; Benjamin, L. A.; Murdoch, D.; Radcliff, V. S.; Velazquez, E. J.; Hicks, C. "Hiv and Noncommunicable Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Diseases in Low- and Middle-Income Countries in the Art Era: What We Know and Best Directions for Future Research." J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 67 Suppl 1, no. SUPPL.1 (Sep 01 2014): S40-53.

Bloomfield, G. S.; Kimaiyo, S.; Carter, E. J.; Binanay, C.; Corey, G. R.; Einterz, R. M.; Tierney, W. M.; Velazquez, E. J. "Chronic Noncommunicable Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Disease in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Academic Model for Countering the Epidemic." Am Heart J 161, no. 5 (May 2011): 842-7.

Bloomfield, G. S.; Lagat, D. K.; Akwanalo, O. C.; Carter, E. J.; Lugogo, N.; Vedanthan, R.; Velazquez, E. J.; Kimaiyo, S.; Sherman, C. B. "Waiting to Inhale: An Exploratory Review of Conditions That May Predispose to Pulmonary Hypertension and Right Heart Failure in Persons Exposed to Household Air Pollution in Low- and Middle-Income Countries." Glob Heart 7, no. 3 (Sep 01 2012): 249-59.

Bloomfield, G. S.; Leung, C. "Cardiac Disease Associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection." Cardiol Clin 35, no. 1 (Feb 2017): 59-70.

Bloomfield, G. S.; Mwangi, A.; Chege, P.; Simiyu, C. J.; Aswa, D. F.; Odhiambo, D.; Obala, A. A.; Ayuo, P.; Khwa-Otsyula, B. O. "Multiple Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Kenya: Evidence from a Health and Demographic Surveillance System Using the Who Stepwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance." Heart 99, no. 18 (Sep 2013): 1323-9.

Bloomfield, G. S.; Temu, T. M.; Akwanalo, C. O.; Chen, P. S.; Emonyi, W.; Heckbert, S. R.; Koech, M. M.; Manji, I.; Shen, C.; Vatta, M.; Velazquez, E. J.; Wessel, J.; Kimaiyo, S.; Inui, T. S. "Genetic Mutations in African Patients with Atrial Fibrillation: Rationale and Design of the Study of Genetics of Atrial Fibrillation in an African Population (Signal)." Am Heart J 170, no. 3 (Sep 2015): 455-64 e5.

Bloomfield, G. S.; Vedanthan, R.; Vasudevan, L.; Kithei, A.; Were, M.; Velazquez, E. J. "Mobile Health for Non-Communicable Diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review of the Literature and Strategic Framework for Research." Global Health 10 (Jun 13 2014): 49.

Bloomfield, G. S.; Wang, T. Y.; Boulware, L. E.; Califf, R. M.; Hernandez, A. F.; Velazquez, E. J.; Peterson, E. D.; Li, J. S. "Implementation of Management Strategies for Diabetes and Hypertension: From Local to Global Health in Cardiovascular Diseases." Glob Heart 10, no. 1 (Mar 2015): 31-8.

Bloomfield, G. S.; Xavier, D.; Belis, D.; Alam, D.; Davis, P.; Dorairaj, P.; Ghannem, H.; Gilman, R. H.; Kamath, D.; Kimaiyo, S.; Levitt, N.; Martinez, H.; Mejicano, G.; Miranda, J. J.; Koehlmoos, T. P.; Rabadan-Diehl, C.; Ramirez-Zea, M.; Rubinstein, A.; Sacksteder, K. A.; Steyn, K.; Tandon, N.; Vedanthan, R.; Wolbach, T.; Wu, Y.; Yan, L. L. "Training and Capacity Building in Lmic for Research in Heart and Lung Diseases: The Nhlbi-Unitedhealth Global Health Centers of Excellence Program." Glob Heart 11, no. 1 (Mar 2016): 17-25.

Colantonio, L. D.; Baldridge, A. S.; Huffman, M. D.; Bloomfield, G. S.; Prabhakaran, D. "Cardiovascular Research Publications from Latin America between 1999 and 2008. A Bibliometric Study." Arq Bras Cardiol 104, no. 1 (Jan 2015): 5-15.

Engelgau, M. M.; Sampson, U. K.; Rabadan-Diehl, C.; Smith, R.; Miranda, J.; Bloomfield, G. S.; Belis, D.; Narayan, K. M.; National Health, Lung; Blood Institute-UnitedHealth Global Health Centers of Excellence, Collaborators. "Tackling Ncd in Lmic: Achievements and Lessons Learned from the Nhlbi-Unitedhealth Global Health Centers of Excellence Program." [In eng]. Glob Heart 11, no. 1 (Mar 2016): 5-15.

Feinstein, M. J.; Bogorodskaya, M.; Bloomfield, G. S.; Vedanthan, R.; Siedner, M. J.; Kwan, G. F.; Longenecker, C. T. "Cardiovascular Complications of Hiv in Endemic Countries." Curr Cardiol Rep 18, no. 11 (Nov 2016): 113.

Gacd Hypertension Research Programme, Writing Group; Peiris, D.; Thompson, S. R.; Beratarrechea, A.; Cardenas, M. K.; Diez-Canseco, F.; Goudge, J.; Gyamfi, J.; Kamano, J. H.; Irazola, V.; Johnson, C.; Kengne, A. P.; Keat, N. K.; Miranda, J. J.; Mohan, S.; Mukasa, B.; Ng, E.; Nieuwlaat, R.; Ogedegbe, O.; Ovbiagele, B.; Plange-Rhule, J.; Praveen, D.; Salam, A.; Thorogood, M.; Thrift, A. G.; Vedanthan, R.; Waddy, S. P.; Webster, J.; Webster, R.; Yeates, K.; Yusoff, K.; Hypertension Research Programme, members: ; Binanay, C.; Bloomfield, G.; DeLong, A.; Finkelstein, E.; Fuster, V.; Hogan, J.; Kamano, J. H.; Horowitz, C. ; Inui, T.; Kimaiyo, K.; Kofler, C.; Menya, D.; Naanyu, V.; Rotich, J.; Vedanthan, R.; Velazquez, E.; Were, M. "Behaviour Change Strategies for Reducing Blood Pressure-Related Disease Burden: Findings from a Global Implementation Research Programme." Implement Sci 10, no. 1 (Nov 09 2015): 158.

Gaziano, T. A.; Abrahams-Gessel, S.; Alam, S.; Alam, D.; Ali, M.; Bloomfield, G.; Carrillo-Larco, R. M.; Dorairaj, P.; Gutierrez, L.; Irazola, V.; Levitt, N. S.; Miranda, J. J.; Bernabe-Ortiz, A.; Pandya, A.; Rubinstein, A.; Steyn, K.; Xavier, D.; Yan, L. L. "Comparison of Nonblood-Based and Blood-Based Total Cv Risk Scores in Global Populations." Glob Heart 11, no. 1 (Mar 2016): 37-46 e2.

Hertz, J. T.; Reardon, J. M.; Rodrigues, C. G.; de Andrade, L.; Limkakeng, A. T.; Bloomfield, G. S.; Lynch, C. A. "Acute Myocardial Infarction in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Need for Data." PLoS One 9, no. 5 (May 2014): e96688.

Huffman, M. D.; Baldridge, A.; Bloomfield, G. S.; Colantonio, L. D.; Prabhakaran, P.; Ajay, V. S.; Suh, S.; Lewison, G.; Prabhakaran, D. "Global Cardiovascular Research Output, Citations, and Collaborations: A Time-Trend, Bibliometric Analysis (1999-2008)." PLoS One 8, no. 12 (January 2013): e83440.

Irazola, V. E.; Gutierrez, L.; Bloomfield, G.; Carrillo-Larco, R. M.; Dorairaj, P.; Gaziano, T.; Levitt, N. S.; Miranda, J. J.; Ortiz, A. B.; Steyn, K.; Wu, Y.; Xavier, D.; Yan, L. L.; He, J.; Rubinstein, A. "Hypertension Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control in Selected Lmic Communities: Results from the Nhlbi/Uhg Network of Centers of Excellence for Chronic Diseases." Glob Heart 11, no. 1 (Mar 2016): 47-59.

Kiyeng, J. C.; Siika, A.; Koech, C.; Bloomfield, G. S. "Definite Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia in a 60-Year-Old Black Kenyan Woman: A Case Report." J Med Case Rep 10, no. 1 (May 25 2016): 126.

Lagat, D. K.; DeLong, A. K.; Wellenius, G. A.; Carter, E. J.; Bloomfield, G. S.; Velazquez, E. J.; Hogan, J.; Kimaiyo, S.; Sherman, C. B. "Factors Associated with Isolated Right Heart Failure in Women: A Pilot Study from Western Kenya." Glob Heart 9, no. 2 (Jun 2014): 249-54.

Lumsden, R. H.; Akwanalo, C.; Chepkwony, S.; Kithei, A.; Omollo, V.; Holland, T. L.; Bloomfield, G. S.; ; O'Meara, W. P. "Clinical and Geographic Patterns of Rheumatic Heart Disease in Outpatients Attending Cardiology Clinic in Western Kenya." Int J Cardiol 223 (Nov 15 2016): 228-35.

Lumsden, R. H.; Bloomfield, G. S. "The Causes of Hiv-Associated Cardiomyopathy: A Tale of Two Worlds." Biomed Res Int 2016 (February 2016): 8196560.

McCrary, A. W.; Nduka, C. U.; Stranges, S.; Bloomfield, G. S. "Features of Cardiovascular Disease in Low-Income and Middle-Income Countries in Adults and Children Living with Hiv." [In eng]. Curr Opin HIV AIDS  (Aug 10 2017).

Naanyu, V.; Vedanthan, R.; Kamano, J. H.; Rotich, J. K.; Lagat, K. K.; Kiptoo, P.; Kofler, C.; Mutai, K. K.; Bloomfield, G. S.; Menya, D.; Kimaiyo, S.; Fuster, V.; Horowitz, C. R.; Inui, T. S. "Barriers Influencing Linkage to Hypertension Care in Kenya: Qualitative Analysis from the Lark Hypertension Study." J Gen Intern Med 31, no. 3 (Mar 2016): 304-14.

Nduka, C. U.; Stranges, S.; Bloomfield, G. S.; Kimani, P. K.; Achinge, G.; Malu, A. O.; Uthman, O. A. "A Plausible Causal Link between Antiretroviral Therapy and Increased Blood Pressure in a Sub-Saharan African Setting: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis." Int J Cardiol 220 (Oct 01 2016): 400-7.

Park, P. H.; Chege, P.; Hagedorn, I. C.; Kwena, A.; Bloomfield, G. S.; Pastakia, S. D. "Assessing the Accuracy of a Point-of-Care Analyzer for Hyperlipidaemia in Western Kenya." Trop Med Int Health 21, no. 3 (Mar 2016): 437-44.

Pastakia, S. D.; Ali, S. M.; Kamano, J. H.; Akwanalo, C. O.; Ndege, S. K.; Buckwalter, V. L.; Vedanthan, R.; Bloomfield, G. S. "Screening for Diabetes and Hypertension in a Rural Low Income Setting in Western Kenya Utilizing Home-Based and Community-Based Strategies." Global Health 9 (May 16 2013): 21.

Temu, T. M.; Bahiru, E.; Bukachi, F.; Bloomfield, G. S.; Muiruri, P.; Farquhar, C. "Lay Beliefs About Hypertension among Hiv-Infected Adults in Kenya." Open Heart 4, no. 1 (April 2017): e000570.

Temu, T. M.; Kirui, N.; Wanjalla, C.; Ndungu, A. M.; Kamano, J. H.; Inui, T. S.; Bloomfield, G. S. "Cardiovascular Health Knowledge and Preventive Practices in People Living with Hiv in Kenya." BMC Infect Dis 15 (Oct 14 2015): 421.

Vedanthan, R.; Kamano, J. H.; Bloomfield, G. S.; Manji, I.; Pastakia, S.; Kimaiyo, S. N. "Engaging the Entire Care Cascade in Western Kenya: A Model to Achieve the Cardiovascular Disease Secondary Prevention Roadmap Goals." Glob Heart 10, no. 4 (Dec 2015): 313-7.

Vedanthan, R.; Kamano, J. H.; Lee, H.; Andama, B.; Bloomfield, G. S.; DeLong, A. K.; Edelman, D.; Finkelstein, E. A.; Hogan, J. W.; Horowitz, C. R.; Manyara, S.; Menya, D.; Naanyu, V.; Pastakia, S. D.; Valente, T. W.; Wanyonyi, C. C.; Fuster, V. "Bridging Income Generation with Group Integrated Care for Cardiovascular Risk Reduction: Rationale and Design of the Bigpic Study." [In eng]. Am Heart J 188 (Jun 2017): 175-85.

Vedanthan, R.; Kamano, J. H.; Naanyu, V.; Delong, A. K.; Were, M. C.; Finkelstein, E. A.; Menya, D.; Akwanalo, C. O.; Bloomfield, G. S.; Binanay, C. A.; Velazquez, E. J.; Hogan, J. W.; Horowitz, C. R.; Inui, T. S.; Kimaiyo, S.; Fuster, V. "Optimizing Linkage and Retention to Hypertension Care in Rural Kenya (Lark Hypertension Study): Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial." Trials 15 (Apr 27 2014): 143.

Woldu, B.; Bloomfield, G. S. "Rheumatic Heart Disease in the Twenty-First Century." Curr Cardiol Rep 18, no. 10 (Oct 2016): 96.